De planeet Saturnus

Alles puur natuur nier ;-)
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vr 28 jun 2013, 23:15

Afbeelding

:popiejopie:
In de erfenis der eeuwen ligt veel wijsheid opgetast. Ook hier geldt: dwaas is hij die zijn eigen geschiedenis versmaadt.
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ma 15 jul 2013, 23:20

Leuk trouwens dat in Scandinavië de Zaterdag (Saturday / Saturnday) niet in genoemd wordt in relatie tot Saturnus maar tot de "wasdag".

Nog leuker is dat de Maori hetzelfde zeggen!

* In Scandinavian countries, Saturday is called lördag, "lørdag," or laurdag, the name being derived from the old word laugr/laug (hence Icelandic name Laugardagur), meaning bath, thus Lördag equates to bath-day. This is due to the Viking practice of bathing on Saturdays.

* In Sweden, Saturday is usually the only day of the week when children are allowed to eat sweets, lördagsgodis. Lördag derives from lögardag; old word löga meaning to wash/clean.

* The modern Maori name for Saturday, rahoroi, literally means "washing-day" - a vestige of early colonized life when M?ori converts would set aside time on the Saturday to wash their whites for Church on Sunday.


Bijzonder hoor! Is er een Maori-Scandinavië connectie???

De Scandinavische mythologie kent ook geen "god" voor de Zaterdag. Deze dag is "slechts" de dag voor de nieuwe zon...


Maar voor de rest van de wereld wordt Zaterdag dus geassocieerd met Saturnus en wordt de kleur "paars" ook vele malen beschreven.

Zie ook hier
“In individuals, insanity is rare; but in groups, parties, nations and epochs, it is the rule.” ~ Friedrich Nietzsche ~
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zo 28 jul 2013, 11:30

Leuk de paus is op bezoek bij de Pataxo-stam in Brazilië.

Hij wordt getrakteerd op een Saturniaal feestje.

Toch grappig dat deze stam dus dezelfde oude vóór-Christelijke [strike]Saturniale[/strike] symboliek hanteert, dat in het westen als een puur Christelijk symbool wordt gezien (de aureool, met het vierkante kruis)....
Afbeelding
Zondag 28 juli 2013, 07:40
Paus sluit in mis Wereldjongerendagen af
RIO DE JANEIRO -

Met een mis waarin paus Franciscus voorgaat, worden zondag op het wereldberoemde strand van Copacabana in Rio de Janeiro de Wereldjongerendagen afgesloten. Burgemeester Eduardo Paes van Rio verwacht dat 2,5 tot 3 miljoen mensen de viering zullen bijwonen.

Vanaf dinsdag waren honderdduizenden katholieke jongeren in de Braziliaanse stad bijeen om te bidden en zich op hun geloof te bezinnen. Onder hen waren ongeveer 300 Nederlanders en 200 Vlamingen.

Aan de mis ging een wake op het strand vooraf. Die begon zaterdagavond en duurde tot en met het begin van de eucharistieviering. Tijdens die wake riep de paus in een vlammend betoog Braziliaanse jongeren op om te blijven strijden tegen apathie en voor een betere samenleving. „Jullie zijn de bouwers van een betere wereld.”

Daarmee verwees hij naar eerdere protestacties in het Zuid-Amerikaanse land. Die protesten moeten wel „ordelijk, vreedzaam en verantwoord verlopen”, vindt Franciscus.

Beide evenementen zouden oorspronkelijk op het Campus Fidei (veld van geloof) plaatsvinden in een buitenwijk van Rio, maar door de aanhoudende regen is dat terrein in een modderpoel veranderd. Daarom is besloten ze naar het strand te verplaatsen, waar dinsdag ook de openingsviering plaatshad.

Tijdens de slotviering wordt bekendgemaakt waar de volgende Wereldjongerendagen worden gehouden. Volgens omroep RKK wijst alles erop dat de Poolse stad Krakau is uitverkoren. Het zou de tweede keer zijn dat het evenement in Polen wordt gehouden. In 1991 trokken de jongeren naar het Mariabedevaartsoord Czestochowa.

BRON
“In individuals, insanity is rare; but in groups, parties, nations and epochs, it is the rule.” ~ Friedrich Nietzsche ~
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zo 28 jul 2013, 21:45

de indiaan en de paus:

"In explaining the development of the human mind in relation to the catastrophes of Venus and Mars in the period 1453 to 687 B. C. Velikovsky pushes beyond Nietzsche, Freud, Jung, and Eliade with the concepts of collective amnesia and aggression. Mankind is destructively aggressive as a result of suppressing its memories of natural disasters. "The inability to accept the catastrophic past is the source of man's aggression... Freud did not come to understand the true nature of the Great Trauma -- born in the Theogony or battle of the planetary gods with our Earth, brought more than once to the brink of destruction -- which was the fate of Mercury, Mars, and Moon.
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ma 29 jul 2013, 18:08

Afbeelding

If the Moon were replaced with some of our planets



Night Version here:



In order show:

Mars
Venus
Neptune
Uranus
Jupiter
Saturn

Mercury is intentionally left off as it isn't Much bigger than our Moon (and hence is boring)

Everything is correctly scaled. The Axial tilts are not particularly accurate.
the moon that flies in front of Saturn is Tethys. It is Tiny. but *very* close


Dione would be on a collision course, it's orbital distance from Saturn is Nearly identical to our Moon's orbit around Earth

Titan, which is Larger than our Moon, is outside the orbit of Dione

****************
on Jupiter, you might be able to make out the 4 big moons, They all have orbits larger than our moons orbit. but I stuck them on the far side of jupiter so that they could be seen so it looks as if they are closer (to Jupiter) than they really are.

***************
Video creation method
I created an Earth Moon system in 3dsmax, with accurate sizes and accurate orbital distances.. I than matched video of the real Moon with my video camera, against my model. I also researched the correct FOV of my video camera. I used both methods to verify my Virtual camera's FOV (around 47 degrees). I next modeled up the rest of the planets in proper scale (Real values) set at the distance of the moon (also real values), created the animation of them rotating around, and composited the whole bunch.

***************
Faq:

Scales used in Visualization:
Celestial Body Radius (in km)
Moon: 1738
Mars: 3397
Venus: 6052
Neptune: 25,269 (equatorial) 24,340 (polar)
Uranus: 25,559 (equatorial) 24,973 (polar)
Jupiter: 71,490 (equatorial) 66,854 (polar)
Saturn: 60,268 (equatorial) 54,360 (polar) (not including rings)

Distance to Moon 384,000km


Faq: (will expand as needed)

1, We would not be engulfed by Jupiter or any other planet, Jupiter's radius is 71,490 km and the distance to the Moon is 384,000km

2, Saturn is not larger than Jupiter. Saturn + RINGS is larger than Jupiter

3, We would suffer from really really horrible tides, and Volcanoes And some pretty bad Radiation from Jupiter. It *could* strip away our atmosphere, but haven't done the math. Eventually our planet would become tidally locked (that is the same side of Earth would always face Jupiter. we would Still have some bad tides and volcanoes from being in a slightly ellipitical orbit, and from the other moons of Jupiter, and the Sun having tidal influence. I have not calculated how bad the Tides would be. A Simple guess would be at Least 300 times more exaggerated than they are now, This figure could be way off, it's simply an educated guess.

4, We would not be in the rings of Saturn. Or to rephrase that, we would not be in any of the Visable rings of Saturn, There are some very very faint rings that strech out far that we would be in, but i did not model them.

5, We would not be crushed by the Gravity of Jupiter, This is not how orbiting works!.
However, at the Roche limit, we WOULD become a new ring system, The Roche limit is *about* 36,000km above the "surface" of Jupiter or 106,000km from the center of Jupiter. So, to reiterate if the center of Jupiter was 106,000km away from the center of the earth, Our planet would become a new Ring system of Jupiter.

6, I did not model the Ring of debris around Uranus (this faq will be deleted in a few days)

7, This is not an ad for any beer company, no one has endorsed me, or this animation, It's just the traffic that drove by.

8, There is Ring Shine on Saturn, but it is very faint, the Rings are reflecting light onto Saturn in the animation. The moon that flies by is Tethys

9, I love Pluto, and Mercury. They are left off because they are too small. Pluto is smaller than our Moon, and Mercury is not significantly larger than our Moon.

10, The "Sun" i used for lighting the planets is slightly off from reality, this was done so that they weren't totally dark and boring

11 FOV is about 47 degrees

12 Orbiting! Yes! we would be a moon of Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune. They are much more massive than the Earth. Venus is about the same size of the Earth and we would orbit around a center point between us

13 Rotation rates and axial tilts are not accurate to anything

14 Radius of the Sun is 695,500 km, and hence if it were where our Moon is, we would be engulfed by it
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do 22 aug 2013, 07:45

Nog meer "herinneringen" aan Saturnus...

"Saturn Return"

"Saturn Return" is an alleged phenomenon which is described as influencing a person's life development at 27 to 29 or 30-year intervals. These intervals or "returns" coincide with the approximate time it takes the planet Saturn to make one orbit around the sun, i.e. 29.4 years.

It is believed by astrologers that, as Saturn "returns" to the degree in its orbit occupied at the time of birth, a person crosses over a major threshold and enters the next stage of life. With the first Saturn return, a person leaves youth behind and enters adulthood.

With the second return, maturity. And with the third and usually final return, a person enters wise old age. These periods are estimated to occur at roughly the ages of 28-31, 56-60 and 84-90. A fourth return occurs for only a few people, at age 114-118
".

BRON

Afbeelding

"Just Do It"


;)
“In individuals, insanity is rare; but in groups, parties, nations and epochs, it is the rule.” ~ Friedrich Nietzsche ~
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vr 06 sep 2013, 21:33

Afbeelding
Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MPS/JHUAPL

The graphic shows the donut-shaped structure of Saturn's ion radiation belts, constructed using data from Cassini's energetic charged particle detector known as the the low energy magnetospheric measurement system on Cassini’s magnetospheric imaging instrument. The intensity of the radiation belts is color-coded, with red and blue corresponding to high and low intensities, respectively. Saturn's ion radiation belts extend between the main rings and the orbit of Tethys. The large, inner Saturnian moons (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys) absorb all high energy ions trapped in magnetic zones that are at the same distances as these satellites’ orbits. (Note how Mimas is particularly effective sweeping particles out of the zone of its orbit, marked by the blue arc in the cross-section.) This results in the formation of “shells” of radiation belts, which are also isolated from the particle populations residing beyond the orbit of Tethys. The intensities are for protons with energies between 12 and 59 million electron volts.
A Major Variation on a Theme
Jul. 18, 2011
Stephen J. Edberg, Cassini science communication coordinator
http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/cassini ... e20110714/


Saturn has been recognized as a standout since Galileo first pointed his telescope at it. The beauty of the rings immediately draws attention. But Saturn’s invisible radiation belts are special too. Trapped in Saturn’s magnetosphere, the volume of space controlled by the planet’s magnetic field, the radiation belts are only present between zones limited by the orbital distances of the planet’s moons. The radiation disappears where the moons orbit because the particles collide with the moons. The radiation belts themselves should have disappeared long ago because the particles slowly spiral in towards the planet. But the belts are still there!

A recent paper in the Journal of Geophysical Research by Cassini scientists working with an energetic particle detector on the spacecraft’s magnetospheric imaging instrument provides an explanation: Saturn’s radiation belts are regularly replenished through the collision of galactic cosmic rays coming from outside the solar system with atoms in Saturn’s atmosphere and its rings. This phenomenon, known as cosmic ray albedo neutron decay, makes Saturn unique in the solar system and gives scientists a better understanding of the behavior of Saturn’s belts and their differences from Earth’s.

Saturn’s magnetosphere, like those of the other planets, contains radiation belts. These belts consist of ions (atoms that have lost one or more electrons, primarily by collisions or excitation by ultraviolet or x-ray radiation from the sun) and electrons that cycle back and forth along the field lines connecting the north and south magnetic poles. (The ions are mostly the nuclei – single protons – of hydrogen atoms.) After visits by NASA’s Pioneer 11 and Voyager spacecraft, scientists observed that Saturn’s rings and inner satellites absorb these ions and electrons as they orbit around Saturn, clearing zones in the radiation belts. How, then, do the belts maintain themselves over time when the particles slowly drift in, and therefore across the orbits of the satellites?

Roussos and colleagues have found that the rain of local radiation on the moons is maintained by the combination of cosmic rays streaming in from our Milky Way galaxy and the nuclear physics of the cosmic ray collisions at Saturn. Although these kinds of cosmic ray collisions also occur at Earth (and possibly at Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune), the radiation belts of those planets may receive energetic particles through many different mechanisms. At Saturn, cosmic ray collisions appear to be the only process providing high-energy particles, making its radiation belts a unique, filtered reservoir of cosmic ray products from our galaxy.

These cosmic rays are ions themselves and must have enough energy, first, to get inside Saturn’s magnetosphere (which is a barrier to them). The higher the energy of the cosmic rays, the deeper they can penetrate in Saturn’s magnetosphere. Some of these cosmic rays may even make it in as close as the distance of the planet’s main rings or atmosphere. There the collision of a galactic cosmic ray with an atom can shatter the nucleus and release a high energy neutron, one of the constituents of the nucleus of an atom. The important physics in the process is that (1) neutrons are not affected by magnetic fields (so they can travel in any direction) and that (2) neutrons have a limited lifetime: they decay into a lower energy proton, electron, and an anti-neutrino. The proton (and electron) can then become constituents of Saturn’s radiation belts, replenishing particles lost to collisions with Saturn’s moons and rings.

This is a nice picture, but is it correct? Other researchers propose that the now-familiar process of coronal mass ejections from the sun could replenish the radiation belts. Roussos and colleagues point out that three intense solar events collided with Saturn’s magnetosphere and actually generated a temporary new radiation belt outside Tethys’ orbit, a moon orbiting at the outer edge of Saturn’s permanent ion radiation belts. However, no changes were detected in those inner radiation belts throughout this period. Tethys’ absorption of particles apparently isolates the inner radiation belts from events outside. Occasional injections of particles just don’t work to maintain or intensify the inner radiation belts.

Except for some simulations that match the particle energy spectrum observed, there was not observational support for either cosmic ray collisions or an internal acceleration process at work. The Cassini researchers took advantage of Cassini’s long stay studying the Saturn system and the fortuitous coincidence of the extended sunspot minimum just now ending to study any correlation between the behavior of the radiation belts’ intensities over time.

At first glance, cosmic ray collisions and a lack of sunspots would not seem to be related at all. But the galactic cosmic rays that are the engine of cosmic ray albedo neutron decay are modulated by the sun’s behavior. The cosmic rays need to have enough energy to enter the heliosphere (the sun’s version of a planet’s magnetosphere, but with more phenomena). The energy necessary to enter is lower when the sun is less active: this occurs when there are fewer sunspots and fewer solar flares and a weaker magnetic field carried by the solar wind (which is really more like a breeze during sunspot minimum). As a result, the number of galactic cosmic rays reaching Saturn’s magnetosphere is higher during sunspot minimum.

This effect occurs also at our planet and was first established by Scott Forbush in 1937. It is now recognized that there can be long-term Forbush effects tied to the sunspot cycle and short-term Forbush effects due to solar activity like coronal mass ejections. The researchers found evidence of both long- and short-term Forbush effects in their studies of the radiation belts.

In the paper led by Roussos, data from the low energy magnetospheric measurement system on Cassini’s magnetospheric imaging instrument (MIMI/LEMMS) showed that radiation belt intensity rose from the time Cassini arrived at Saturn (June 2004) through the first months of 2010 in step with the rise of the galactic cosmic ray intensity getting into the heliosphere. Then the sun started showing signs of renewed sunspot activity. This finding was in agreement with expectations for radiation belts generated by cosmic rays and represents long term Forbush effects in Saturn’s magnetosphere.

Short-term effects were less obvious but more intriguing. As sunspot activity was falling during the 15-month period spanning the last quarter of 2004 to the start of 2006, three “Solar Energetic Particle” (SEP) events were observed at Saturn. These are enhancements of cosmic rays, but their origin is the sun (solar cosmic rays). Solar energetic particle events can happen anytime but are more frequent when sunspot numbers are high.

Studies at Earth show that these solar cosmic rays supply other planets’ magnetospheres and their radiation belts with a significant number of high energy particles. This is what one would naturally expect to happen.This is not, however, the case for Saturn, in part because Tethys isolates the inner Saturnian belts from particles coming from outside. Solar cosmic ray events “carry” with them a stronger magnetic field, which excludes galactic cosmic rays from their volume. Galactic cosmic ray intensity is therefore reduced when solar cosmic ray events are moving across Saturn’s magnetosphere (these reductions are called “Forbush decreases”). Such Forbush decreases were identified in the MIMI/LEMMS dataset during the “active” 2004 to 2006 period.

Interestingly, during this same period increases in radiation belt intensity were lower (or even absent) compared to the increasing intensities seen between 2006 and 2010. This indicates that Forbush decreases may actually limit the high-energy particle content of Saturn’s radiation belts and even cause a reduction in their intensity (since fewer galactic cosmic rays could enter and have collisions). If this finding is verified by subsequent observations, it may mean that Saturn’s radiation belts are the only ones known to us whose intensity is reduced, instead of being enhanced, after a solar energetic particle event.

Still, some mysteries remain. While cosmic ray collisions may explain the presence of high-energy ions at Saturn, the radiation belts also contain lower energy products. The research team also found that, if the data were separated into lower and higher energy particles in the radiation belts, both behaved the same way. This suggests that both have the same origin or that both might be tied together by some cause-effect relationship, but scientists have not yet understood where the low-energy population comes from or how the high- and low-energy products are related.
Has anyone addressed the questions here yet? Why does earth have charged particles spiraling around it in radiation belts, with no significant rings, while Saturn has particles shaped into rings? Even odder seemingly is that when Saturn does get particles introduced into radiation belts, they quickly end up in the rings?
The answer is so simple it is painful. We know that Saturn's dipole magnetic field is aligned almost exactly with it's spin axis, while earth's is tilted at ~11 degrees. All we need is one assumption, that Earth and Saturn are charged, and the rest is straight forward.
If a charged particle is sitting anywhere in Saturn's equatorial plane, it will feel a radial attractive (or repulsive) force to the planet. The magnetic field cuts exactly perpendicularly through the equatorial plane (the result of the spin axis aligned dipole). This leaves a force on the particle perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the electric tug, meaning exactly in the plane of the rings, and around the planet.
If a charged particle is sitting in Earth's equatorial plane, it will feel a radial attractive (or repulsive) force to the planet. The magnetic field cuts through the plane at angle which varies in a 24 hour cycle, tilting 11 degrees left or right, if you are looking in from the particles perspective, to the planet. This leaves us with a directionally varying force on the particle which sends the particle around the planet, but also up or down through the equatorial plane. The mere act of moving up or down in this case, also drives the particle in or outward, and we have the resulting driven toroidal motion.
Going back to Saturn for a minute, we see that even if we introduce a charged particle at a point away from the equatorial plane, it is driven (spiraling) back into the equatorial plane by the magnetic field (this caused by the fact that the magnetic field flows inward toward the planet's poles). So the odd result here, is that even if a charged particle is introduced into earth's equatorial plane, it is driven into toroidal motion by that misaligned dipole field, yet a charged particle outside of Saturn's equatorial plane, is driven into the disk. All this caused simply by a variation in the alignment between a planet's spin axis and it's dipole magnetic field.
by celeste »
Wed Jul 10, 2013 12:52 am

======================================
Continuing from my last post, we can now see how easy it is to explain Saturn's braided F ring.
Saturn's magnetic dipole is aligned very closely to the spin axis, but it's not quite a perfect alignment (estimates from the mainstream of ~1 degree off?). As Saturn rotates, this means that particles in the rings get the ever so slightest nudge out of the ring plane, first in one direction, then the other. Remember, the force on the particle can now be in a direction up to one degree away from the ring plane. If you think this is too small to matter, in general, you'd be right. The rings are sorted, however, (this we both see, and know how it must happen). What we find, is that at some radius (here the F ring), we have a match. The time varying field (caused by Saturn's rotation) is perfect to drive up these particular particles(mass/charge ratio), into toroidal motion. This leaves us with that odd appearing braided ring, right in the middle of an otherwise flat ring system.

by celeste » Wed Jul 10, 2013 10:30 am
bron: http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpB ... &start=225
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vr 06 sep 2013, 22:13

Dit is weer gruwelijk interessant
In de erfenis der eeuwen ligt veel wijsheid opgetast. Ook hier geldt: dwaas is hij die zijn eigen geschiedenis versmaadt.
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za 12 okt 2013, 07:14

Forget diamonds in the sky — it may actually be raining diamonds on Saturn and Jupiter, according to two planetary scientists

Researchers have long wondered whether the high pressures inside the giant planets could turn carbon into diamond2, and even though some researchers dispute their claim, Mona Delitsky of California Specialty Engineering in Flintridge, and Kevin Baines of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, now say it is possible. They are laying out their argument this week at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Sciences in Denver, Colorado.

bron en meer: http://www.nature.com/news/diamond-driz ... er-1.13925
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vr 18 okt 2013, 12:36

Saturn's bizarre HEXAGONAL storm system is revealed in true colour for the first time

Hexagon shape is created by a band of upper-atmospheric winds on Saturn
Images, up until now, have shown it in false-colour infrared wavelengths
In April, the Cassini spacecraft provided scientists with the first close-up views of a behemoth hurricane swirling within it

By Ellie Zolfagharifard

PUBLISHED: 11:20 GMT, 17 October 2013 | UPDATED: 14:17 GMT, 17 October 2013

for video http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/ ... -time.html

via: http://www.grenswetenschap.nl/permalink.asp?i=2561
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ma 09 dec 2013, 13:20

Afbeelding
by starbiter » Fri Dec 06, 2013 8:57 am
This image shows counter rotating rings of ions and electrons, if it's a diocotron instability, as i suspect.

This would be similar to the events on Earth during recent catastrophes, while the air was choked with dust. This would be the sorting process.

michael
bron: http://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpB ... 754#p90631
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ma 09 dec 2013, 13:31

donderdag, 22 augustus 2013 17:14
De Ringen van Saturnus
door Combi



Een voorbeeld van de Saturnus mythe kan worden geverifieerd met behulp van een kleine telescoop Saturnus ligt vast omsloten in kettingen. In plaats van oplossing geeft dit feit een nieuw probleem wat om een oplossing vraagt. Hoe konden de oude Grieken en Romeinen weten dat Saturnus wordt omringd door ringen? (1) Het is vreemd dat deze vraag niet eerder gesteld is. (2) Het bestaan ​​van deze ringen rond Saturnus is pas bekend geworden in de moderne tijd in de zeventiende eeuw, nadat de telescoop werd uitgevonden. Ze werden voor het eerst gezien, maar verkeerd begrepen, door Galileo (3) en pas goed begrepen door Huygens. (4)

Afbeelding

Als de mythe van de ringen niet door louter toeval ontstaan is, moeten de Grieken op een of andere manier gezien kunnen hebben dat Saturnus ringen heeft. Het laatste geval zou het geval zijn als de Grieken of een andere oosters volk lenzen bezaten die waren aangepast voor de observatie van hemellichamen, of te wel sterrenkijkers. Wat ook zou kunnen is dat op een bepaald moment in het verleden de ringen rond Saturnus zichtbaar waren voor het blote oog. Nu in het heden zijn ze niet zeker niet zichtbaar zonder instrumenten.

Er zijn echter gevallen van exacte waarnemingen van de Chaldeeën, die het gebruik van technische instrumenten impliceerde. (5) Deze middelen kunnen een soort van astrolabium zijn als dat van Tyche de Brahe, die maakte de meeste nauwkeurige waarnemingen van de hemellichamen die bestaan ​​zonder de hulp van een telescoop, ook Copernicus, voorafgaand aan Tyche de Brahe, maakte al zijn berekeningen van de bewegingen van de planeten voordat de telescoop werd uitgevonden. Maar noch Tycho Brahe, noch Copernicus zag de ringen van Saturnus. Het standbeeld van Saturnus in de Romeinse hoofdstad heeft banden (ringen) rond zijn voeten, (6) en Macrobius had in de vijfde eeuw van onze jaartelling, onwetend van de betekenis van deze banden de vraag: "Waarom is de god Saturnus in de boeien geslagen?"

Afbeelding

In de Egyptische legende omhult Isis (Jupiter) Osiris (Saturnus). De Egyptische occulte naam voor Osiris was "de omhulde." (7) In de Zend-Avesta wordt gezegd dat de ster Tistrya (Jupiter, later Venus) Pairiko houdt in tweevoud obligaties. (8) Saturnus wordt omringd door twee groepen van ringen een grotere en een kleinere, met een spatie ertussen. Om dit een betere telescoop dan de door Galilei, of dat gebruikt wordt door Huygens nodig is te zien;. De tweeledige structuur van de gordel werd voor het eerst waargenomen in 1675 (9)

In de Zend-Avesta wordt gezegd dat de ster Tistrya (Jupiter, later Venus) Pairiko op zijn plek houd door twee banden. (8) Saturnus wordt omringd door twee groepen van ringen, een grotere en een kleinere, met een ruimte ertussen. Om dit te kunnen zien heeft men een betere telescoop nodig dan die door Galilei, of door Huygens gebruikt werd. De tweeledige structuur van de gordel werd voor het eerst waargenomen in 1675 (9)

Afbeelding

De ringen van Saturnus waren ook al bekend bij de oorspronkelijke bewoners van Amerika voordat Columbus het land ontdekte, dit betekent dat zij van het bestaan van Saturnus wisten voordat de telescoop in het begin van de zeventiende eeuw werd uitgevonden. Op een oude gegraveerde houten paneel in Mexico geeft staan de planeten: waarvan een de planeet Saturnus is, gemakkelijk herkenbaar door zijn ringen (10)

Afbeelding

Evenmin waren de Maori's van Nieuw-Zeeland onwetend van hen: "Een van de grote mysteries verbonden met Saturnus is de nog steeds onbeantwoorde vraag hoe de oude Maori's van Nieuw-Zeeland wisten van het bestaan van haar ringen, want er is bewijs dat de Maori's lang voor de tijd van Galileo een Saturnus ring legende hadden."(11) In de mythe wordt gezegd dat Jupiter Saturnus weg dreef en dat bij deze gelegenheid Saturnus in de boeien werd geslagen. Als deze woorden betekenen wat ze zeggen dan zou de kennis van de Ouden over de ringen van Saturnus zijn kunnen verkregen als gevolg van een betere zichtbaarheid: met andere woorden in het verleden stonden Saturnus en aarde dichter bij elkaar.

Oorspronkelijk Ik ging ervan uit dat de ringen van Saturnus uit water bestaan ​​in de vorm van ijs, maar sinds de oude traditionele kennis over de hele wereld zegt dat het Jupiter dat deze ringen rond Saturnus vormde, (12) bedacht ik me dat zij ook uit andere componenten bestaan. In 1960 tijdens een spectroscopische studie van de Saturnus ringen werd bevestigd dat zij ​​waarschijnlijk grotendeels bestaan uit water in de vorm van ijs maar dat er ook andere componenten in aanwezig zijn (13)

bron: http://www.varchive.org/itb/rings.htm



origineel:
The Rings of Saturn


One instance of the Saturn myth can be verified with the help of a small telescope: Saturn is in chains. Instead of solving anything, this fact presents a new problem that demands a solution. How did the ancient Greeks and Romans know that Saturn is encircled by rings? (1) It is strange that this question was not asked before.(2) The existence of these rings around Saturn became known in modern times only in the seventeenth century, after the telescope was invented. They were first seen, but misunderstood, by Galileo (3) and understood by Huygens. (4)

If the myth did not by mere chance invent these rings, the Greeks must have seen them. The last case could be true if the Greeks or some other oriental people possessed lenses adapted for the observation of celestial bodies, or if the rings around Saturn were visible to the naked eye at some time in the past—today they are not visible without magnifying instruments. There are cases of exact observations by the Chaldeans which suggest the use of some accurate technical means. (5) These means could consist of a sort of astrolabe like that of Tyche de Brahe who made most accurate observations of celestial bodies without the help of a telescope; also Copernicus, prior to Tyche de Brahe, made all his calculations of the movements of the planets before the telescope was invented. But neither Tycho de Brahe nor Copernicus saw the rings.

The statue of Saturn on the Roman capitol had bands around its feet, (6) and Macrobius in the fifth century of our era, already ignorant of the meaning of these bands, asked: “But why is the god Saturn in chains?”

In the Egyptian legend Isis (Jupiter) swathes Osiris (Saturn). The Egyptian apellative for Osiris was “the swathed.” (7)

In the Zend-Avesta it is said that the star Tistrya (Jupiter, later Venus) keeps Pairiko in twofold bonds. (8) Saturn is encircled by two groups of rings—one larger and one smaller, with a space in between. To see this a better telescope than that used by Galilei or that used by Huygens is needed; the twofold structure of the girdle was first observed in 1675. (9)

The rings of Saturn were known also to the aboriginees of America before Columbus discovered the land; this means also before the telescope was invented at the beginning of the seventeenth century. An ancient engraved wooden panel from Mexico shows the family of the planets: one of them is Saturn, easily recognizable by its rings. (10)

Nor were the Maoris of New Zealand ignorant of them: “One of the great mysteries connected with Saturn is the still unanswered question of how the ancient Maoris of New Zealand knew about her rings—for there is evidence that they did have a Saturnian ring legend long before the days of Galileo.” (11)

In the myth it is said that Jupiter drove Saturn away and that on this occasion Saturn was put in chains. If these words mean what they say and are not a meaningless portion of the myth—in a dream, at least, there are no meaningless parts—then the knowledge of the ancients about the rings of Saturn could have been acquired because of better visibility: in other words, at some time in the past Saturn and Earth appear to have been closer to one another.

Originally I assumed that the rings of Saturn may consist of water in the form of ice, but since the ancient lore all around the world tells that it was Jupiter that put these rings around Saturn, (12) I considered that they might have some other components, too. Since the 1960’s spectroscopic study of the Saturnian rings has confirmed that they consist most probably of water in the form of ice. (13)

References

[The rings of Saturn are referred to by Aeschylus, Eumenides 641: “He [Zeus] himself cast into bonds his aged father Cronus” ; cf. Lucian, Astrology, 21: “Moreover, it is not true, neither, that Saturn is in chains.” Neoplatonists like Proclus In Timaeo, tr. by Festugiere, vol. III, p. 255 and n. 4; In Cratylo 209.3f) and Porphyry (De Antro Nympharum 67.21ff.) sought a philosophical or mystical meaning in the tradition. Cf. also Clemens Alexandrinus, Homilia, VI. xiii in Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca, J.-P. Migne ed., vol. II.207f; Dio Chrysostom, Fourteenth Discourse 21ff: “And yet the King of the Gods, the first and eldest one, is in bonds, they say, if we are to believe Hesiod and Homer and the other wise men who tell this tale about Cronus.” Cf. Hesiod, Works and Days, 169ff. Augustine, refuting those who asserted that the Jewish Sabbath was held in honor of Saturn, wrote: “ita patres nostri longe fuerunt a Saturniacis catenis, quamvis pro tempore propheatiae sabbati vacationem observaverint.” (Contra Faustum Manichaeum XX. 13. in Migne ed., Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Latina, Vol. XLII, p. 379). Cf. also Arnobius, Contra Gentes IV. 24 in ibid., vol. III: “Numquid paricidii causa vinctum esse Saturnum, et suis diebus tantum vinculorum ponderibus revelari?” and Minucius Felix, Octavius XXI, in ibid., vol. III, col. 304: “Quid formae ipsae et habitus? . . . Saturnus compeditis.” An epigram of Martial (III. 29) refers to the bonds of Saturn, comparing them to rings: “Has cum gemina compede dedicat catenas, Saturne, tibi Zoilus anulos priores.” “These chains with their double fetter Zoilus dedicates to you, Saturnus. They were formerly his rings."—transl. by W. Kerr (London, 1919). The shrines to Saturn in Roman Africa portrayed the god with his head surrounded “by a veil that falls on each of his shoulders,” in a way reminiscent of the planet’s rings. See J. Toutain, De Saturni Dei in Africa Romana Cultu (Paris, 1894), p. 42 and figs. 1 and 2.].
[But cf. Th. Taylor in The Classical Journal 40 (1819), pp. 324-326, and A. de Grazia, “Ancient Knowledge of Jupiter’s Bands and Saturn’s Rings,” KRONOS II.3 (1977), pp. 65ff.]

[When Galileo first saw the rings in July of 1610, he thought them to be two satellites on either side of Saturn, and this is what he also announced in his Sidereus Nuntius. Cf. A. Alexander, The Planet Saturn, (1962), pp. 84ff.]

[Chr. Huygens, Systema Saturnium (1659); Cf. Alexander, The Planet Saturn, loc. cit.]

P. Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, p.

Macrobius, The Saturnalia, I.8.5, transl. by P. V. Davies (New York, 1969): “ Saturn, too, is represented with his feet bound together, and, although Verrius Flaccus says that he does not know the reason . . . Apollodorus says that throughout the year Saturn is bound with a bond of wool but is set free on the day of his festival.” Cf. ibid., I.8.1.
See below, section “Tammuz and Osiris” . Cf. A. S. Yahuda, “The Osiris Cult and the Designation of Osiris Idols in the Bible,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies III (1944), pp. 194-197.

The Zend-Avesta xvi, transl. by J. Darmesteter (1883), p. 107. [The text of the Zend-Avesta reads: “Tistrya, bright star, keeps Pairiko in twofold bonds, in threefold bonds.” A third ring around Saturn was observed in 1980. Velikovsky also thought that Mithraic representations of Kronos with his body encircled by a snake (cf. F. Cumont, The Mysteries of Mithra [1903], figs 21-23) may attest to a memory of the rings of Saturn. Cf. the Hindu Sani (the planet Saturn) shown in an ancient woodcut reproduced in F. Maurice, Indian Antiquities (London, 1800), vol. VII, and described by the author as “encircled with a ring formed of serpents.” Tammuz, who represented the planet Saturn in Babylonia (E. Weidner, Handbuch der Babylonisches Astronomie [Leipzig, 1915], p. 61) was called “he who is bound.” See also Thorkild Jacobsen, Toward the Image of Tammuz (Harvard University Press, 1970), p. 85. and A. E. Thierens, Astrology in Mesopotamian Culture (Leiden, 1935). Ninib, who was also Saturn, was said to hold “the unbreakable bond” or “der maechtigen Schlange"—Jastrow, Die Religion Babyloniens und Assyriens, ch. xvii, p. 463.].

The observation was made by G. D. Cassini.

Kingsborough, Antiquities of Mexico (London, 1830), vol. IV, the fourth plate from the end of the volume. See fig.

Guy Murchie, Music of the Spheres (Boston, 1961), p. 94. [A useful discussion of Maori astronomical ideas is provided in a monograph by E. Best, The Astronomical Knowledge of the Maori, Genuine and Empirical, New Zealand Dominium Museum Monograph no. 3 (Wellington, 1922), p. 35:


PAREARAU represents one of the planets. Stowell says that it is Saturn; that Parearau is a descriptive name for that planet, and describes its appearance, surrounded by a ring. The word pare denotes a fillet or headband; arau means “entangled"—or perhaps “surrounded” in this case, if the natives really can see the pare of Saturn with the naked eye. If so, then the name seems a suitable one. . . . Of the origin of this name one says, ‘Her band quite surrounds her, hence she is called Parearau.’” ].

[Regarding the process of formation of Saturn’s rings, Velikovsky thought that it might have been analogous to the formation of a disc-like ring of gaseous material around some stars in binary systems, as described by H. Friedman in Science 181, (Aug. 3, 1973), p. 396: “The gas enters into Keplerian orbits and accumulates in a disc somewhat resembling Saturn’s rings. . . .” ].

In August 1965 Tobias Owen, writing in Science, (p. 975) reported that “the reflection spectrum from the ice block gave best match to the absorption observed in Saturn’s ring"—but that “the most likely alternatives” would be “ices of methane and ammonia"—both known ingredients of the Jovian atmosphere, methane being also in the composition of the Saturnian cloud envelope. See also Appendix 26. [As early as 1947 Kuiper (The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets [1949]), concluded on the basis of spectral measurements in the infrared that “the rings are covered by frost, if not composed of ice.” Cf. A. Cook et al., “Saturn’s Rings—A Survey,” Icarus 18 (1973), p. 317: “Although frozen H2O is a major constituent, the spectral reflectivity indicates the presence of other materials.”].
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wo 12 feb 2014, 19:08




NASA trained several pairs of eyes on Saturn as the planet put on a dancing light show at its poles. While NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, orbiting around Earth, was able to observe the northern auroras in ultraviolet wavelengths, NASA's Cassini spacecraft, orbiting around Saturn, got complementary close-up views in infrared, visible-light and ultraviolet wavelengths. Cassini could also see northern and southern parts of Saturn that don't face Earth.

MEER:

http://www.nasa.gov/jpl/cassini/saturn- ... vup-s76SQB
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do 17 apr 2014, 22:29

Is Saturn Making a New Moon?


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A 750-mile (1,200-km) -long feature spotted on Saturn’s A ring by Cassini on April 15, 2013


Congratulations! It’s a… moon? A bright clump spotted orbiting Saturn at the outermost edge of its A ring may be a brand new moon in the process of being born, according to research recently published in the journal Icarus.

“We have not seen anything like this before,” said Carl Murray of Queen Mary University in London, lead author of the paper. “We may be looking at the act of birth, where this object is just leaving the rings and heading off to be a moon in its own right.”


http://www.universetoday.com/111233/is- ... -new-moon/
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di 13 mei 2014, 18:04

Saturnus verdwijnt achter de maan (bekijk het live!)
13 mei 2014
door Olaf van Kooten
http://www.astroblogs.nl/2014/05/13/sat ... -het-live/


Op woensdagmorgen 14 mei zal de planeet Saturnus tijdelijk verdwijnen achter de maan – een zogenaamde occultatie. Helaas zal dit alleen zichtbaar zijn voor mensen in Australië en Nieuw-Zeeland, maar niet getreurd: je kunt het bekijken via een livestream. http://www.virtualtelescope.eu/webtv/ De gehele gebeurtenis zal ongeveer een uur in beslag nemen. Het lijkt hierbij alsof Saturnus eerst ‘ondergaat’ en daarna weer ‘opkomt’, althans vanuit het perspectief van de maan. Vanuit West-Europa is daar niets van te zien, maar toch hebben we niet helemaal pech: Saturnus en de maan staan wél bijzonder dicht naast elkaar en dat zal toch mooie plaatjes gaan opleveren.

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