Geoengineering & Chemtrails

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zo 05 okt 2014, 05:04

Pilots, Doctors and Scientists Tell the Truth about Chemtrails

Experts present revealing evidence of the dangerous effects of Geo-Engineering Chemtrails has had on nature and human health.

Scientists, doctors, pilots, meteorologists and more share their concerns with the Shasta County Board of Supervisors in a Hearing on Chemtrails and Geoengineering from July 15, 2014

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wo 26 nov 2014, 18:04

Geoengineering our climate is not a 'quick fix'

25 November 2014 Leeds, University of


The deliberate, large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system is not a "quick fix" for global warming, according to the findings of the UK's first publicly funded studies on geoengineering.

The results of three projects - IAGP, led by the University of Leeds; SPICE, led by the University of Bristol; and CGG, led by the University of Oxford - are announced at an event held at The Royal Society, London, on 26 November 2014.

Professor Piers Forster, Professor of Physical Climate Change at the University of Leeds, and the principal investigator of the Integrated Assessment of Geoengineering Proposals (IAGP) project, said: "Our research shows that the devil is in the detail. Geoengineering will be much more expensive and challenging than previous estimates suggest and any benefits would be limited.

"For example, when simulating the spraying of sea salt particles into clouds to try to brighten them, we found that only a few clouds were susceptible and that the particles would tend to coagulate and fall out before reaching the cloud base."

In September 2009, The Royal Society published a report, Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty. It influenced research worldwide, identified important gaps and called for a major UK funding programme into geoengineering. The IAGP and SPICE projects were funded the next year, and the CGG project followed in 2012.

IAGP is the UK's first interdisciplinary research study into the controversial issue of geoengineering. It has brought together a range of expertise - climate modelling, philosophy and engineering - in addition to understanding public perceptions, to assess geoengineering within wider societal values.

"Cleverly designed simulations create less necessity for real-world testing.. My favourite part of the research involved creating a virtual reality in which we tried to rescue Arctic sea ice by dumping sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere from Stratotanker aircraft flying out of Svalbard in Norway," said Professor Forster.

"Issues around monitoring and predicting the effects of our actions led to huge indecision and highlighted how challenging it would be to ever try and deploy these techniques in the real world."

Researchers working on the Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering (SPICE) project took a different tack, but came to a similar cautionary conclusion.

Rather than running simulations, SPICE researchers used volcanoes as models to mimic the effect of a solar geoengineering proposal, in which sulphate aerosols are pumped into the atmosphere to reflect more sunlight back into space. This is a process that also naturally occurs due to particles emitted from volcanic eruptions.

Dr Matthew Watson, a reader in natural hazards from the University of Bristol, and principal investigator for the SPICE project, said: "Whilst it is clear that temperatures could be reduced during deployment, the potential for misstep is considerable. By identifying risks, we hope to contribute to the evidence base around geoengineering that will determine whether deployment, in the face of the threat of climate change, has the capacity to do more good than harm."

In addition to the feasibility of deployment, IAGP researchers organised workshops to gauge people's perceptions of geoengineering. Four public workshops were held in Birmingham, Cardiff, Glasgow and Norwich, and two stakeholder workshops in London, with representation from national government departments, civil society groups and industry.

The idea that geoengineering involves "messing with nature" was found to be a central theme in public discussion groups. The workshops also revealed that, of the geoengineering proposals discussed, carbon dioxide removal approaches were favoured over solar geoengineering approaches. !!!!!!!!!!

In both the public discussion groups and stakeholder workshops, climate change mitigation strategies, such as improving energy efficiency measures and scaling up renewable technologies, were preferred to geoengineering proposals.

Professor Forster said: "Consulting the public, policymakers and industry from the start told us that we should only consider geoengineering within the wider context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. Geoengineering is not a 'quick fix' alternative."

Dr Watson added: "Full scale deployment of climate engineering technologies will be the clearest indication that we have failed in our role as planetary stewards, but there is a point at which not deploying some technologies would be unethical."

Meanwhile, the Climate Geoengineering Governance (CGG) project is the world's first project to concentrate on the governance and regulatory challenges posed by both research and possible deployment.

The findings of the CGG project include the likelihood that cost estimates for major projects are unrealistic, and that geoengineering must be located firmly in the context of mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

Furthermore, CGG research has also unearthed a paradox: Geoengineering proposals that are technically the easiest to implement and have the quickest impact may be most difficult to govern, while those that are easiest to govern seem likely to be further away from effective large-scale deployment.

Professor Steve Rayner, the James Martin Professor of Science and Civilization at the University of Oxford, and principal investigator for the CGG project, concludes: "Take everything you hear both for and against geoengineering with a large grain of salt. Mostly it is too soon to know what any of these technology ideas would look like in practice or what would be their true cost and benefit.

"But it's almost certain that geoengineering will be neither a magic bullet nor Pandora's Box."






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di 16 dec 2014, 17:50

Cost of cloud brightening for cooler planet revealed

15 December 2014 Manchester University

Under embargo until 16 December 2014 00:01 GMT

University of Manchester scientists have identified the most energy-efficient way to make clouds more reflective to the sun in a bid to combat climate change.

Marine Cloud Brightening is a reversible geoengineering method proposed to mitigate rising global temperatures. It relies on propelling a fine mist of salt particles high into the atmosphere to increase the albedo of clouds – the amount of sunlight they reflect back into space. This would then reduce temperatures on the surface, as less sunlight reaches the Earth.

Clouds form when water droplets gather on dust or other particles in the air. Increasing the amount of salt particles in the atmosphere allows more of these water droplets to form, making the clouds denser and therefore more reflective.

A new paper, published in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, has looked at four different ways of getting the particles into the sky, to compare how effective they may be. The researchers found that a technique called the ‘Rayleigh Jet’ proved to be best.

Named after Lord Rayleigh, who provided the theory, the technique relies on spraying a fine jet of water that breaks down into small droplets into the sky. The liquid droplets evaporate quickly, leaving behind just the salt particles.

These particles, say the paper’s authors, could be generated from specially built ships that could travel the world’s oceans spraying salt particles into the air where they then hang in the atmosphere for several days until they return to Earth as rain.

Previous studies have optimised the size of the salt particles needed to produce the best increase in cloud reflectance but haven’t taken into account how much energy the technique would need and how much it would cost to operate. This new paper, by teams at the universities of Manchester, Washington and Edinburgh, tackled this question. The researchers tested each technique so there was an increase in reflection of 5%, a figure that would combat the predicted effects of increased carbon dioxide levels over the rest of this century. They then looked at how much energy each would consume.



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za 20 dec 2014, 01:35

WTF!!!!!!!!!!!???

Check dit:

https://www.facebook.com/InternationalChemtrail

Must be a sick joke... :P
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za 10 jan 2015, 17:00

Geo-engineering: Climate fixes 'could harm billions'


Afbeelding
Using aerosols to block solar radiation represents one approach to geo-engineering


Schemes to tackle climate change could prove disastrous for billions of people, but might be required for the good of the planet, scientists say.

That is the conclusion of a new set of studies into what's become known as geo-engineering.

This is the so far unproven science of intervening in the climate to bring down temperatures.

These projects work by, for example, shading the Earth from the Sun or soaking up carbon dioxide.

Ideas include aircraft spraying out sulphur particles at high altitude to mimic the cooling effect of volcanoes or using artificial "trees" to absorb CO2.

Long regarded as the most bizarre of all solutions for global warming, ideas for geo-engineering have come in for more scrutiny in recent years as international efforts to limit carbon emissions have failed.

Now three combined research projects, led by teams from the universities of Leeds, Bristol and Oxford, have explored the implications in more detail.

The central conclusion, according to Dr Matt Watson of Bristol University, is that the issues surrounding geo-engineering - how it might work, the effects it might have and the potential downsides - are "really really complicated".


MEER:

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-30197085
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za 17 jan 2015, 21:29

OK, ik ben overtuigd.

Afbeelding
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za 17 jan 2015, 21:42

#podcast62
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zo 18 jan 2015, 17:23

FreeElectron schreef:OK, ik ben overtuigd.

Afbeelding

Kan me niet voorstellen dat die knop op het power panel zit...... ;D
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ma 02 feb 2015, 20:55

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ma 02 feb 2015, 20:57

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di 10 mar 2015, 18:06

Identification of the primary lesion of toxic aluminum (Al) in plant roots





http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/ear ... 114.253229
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vr 13 mar 2015, 13:59

Climate Intervention Is Not a Replacement for Reducing Carbon Emissions;

Proposed Intervention Techniques Not Ready for Wide-Scale Deployment

WASHINGTON – There is no substitute for dramatic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate the negative consequences of climate change, a National Research Council committee concluded in a two-volume evaluation of proposed climate-intervention techniques. Strategies to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere are limited by cost and technological immaturity, but they could contribute to a broader portfolio of climate change responses with further research and development. Albedo-modification technologies, which aim to increase the ability of Earth or clouds to reflect incoming sunlight, pose considerable risks and should not be deployed at this time.



Carbon dioxide removal and albedo-modification techniques have been grouped up until now under the common term “geoengineering,” but they vary widely with respect to environmental risks, socio-economic impacts, cost, and research needs. Carbon dioxide removal addresses the root cause of climate change -- high concentrations of the greenhouse gas in the atmosphere -- and generally have well-understood benefits and risks, but current technologies would take decades to achieve moderate results and be cost-prohibitive at scales large enough to have a sizeable impact. By contrast, albedo-modification techniques would only temporarily mask the warming effect caused by high CO2 concentrations, and present serious known and possible unknown environmental, social, and political risks, including the possibility of being deployed unilaterally.



These differences led the committee to evaluate the two types of approaches separately in companion reports, a distinction it hopes carries over to future scientific and policy discussions. In addition, the committee believes that these approaches are more accurately described as “climate intervention” strategies -- purposeful actions intended to curb the negative impacts of climate change -- rather than engineering strategies that imply precise control over the climate.



“That scientists are even considering technological interventions should be a wake-up call that we need to do more now to reduce emissions, which is the most effective, least risky way to combat climate change,” said committee chair Marcia McNutt, editor-in-chief of Science and former director of the U.S. Geological Survey. “But the longer we wait, the more likely it will become that we will need to deploy some forms of carbon dioxide removal to avoid the worst impacts of climate change.”




MEER:

http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpin ... D=02102015
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di 26 mei 2015, 14:28

Maar GEO-ENGINEERING BESTOND TOCH HELEMAAL NIET ?!?!
MIEN WAAR IS MIJN ALUHOED ?!

http://www.nu.nl/wetenschap/4055949/kor ... sfeer.html

Koraal te redden door gasinjectie in stratosfeer'
Foto: Thinkstock
Gepubliceerd: 26 mei 2015 13:54 Laatste update: 26 mei 2015 14:00

Koraal kan mogelijk worden beschermd tegen de opwarming van de aarde door injectie van gas in de stratosfeer. Dat zou blijken uit een nieuwe studie.

De verbleking en afsterving van koraal door klimaatverandering kan niet of nauwelijks worden gestopt door de reductie van CO2-uitstoot.

De organismen zullen mogelijk wel overleven door een extreme maatregel waarbij gas in de atmosfeer wordt gespoten om zonlicht te weerkaatsen dat op de oceaan schijnt.

Dat melden onderzoekers van de Universiteit van Exeter in het wetenschappelijk tijdschrift Nature Climate Change.
Algen

Koraalriffen onttrekken veel van hun voedingsstoffen uit eencellige algen die op koralen leven. Door de opwarming van de aarde sterven veel van deze zogenoemde zoöxanthellae echter af.

De koralen lopen daardoor voedsel mis en slaan bleek uit, omdat de algen ook als een soort pigment dienen voor de organismen. Uiteindelijk kunnen complete riffen afsterven door het verdwijnen van zoöxanthellae. De grote vraag is met welke maatregelen de verbleking van het koraal nog is tegen te gaan.

De Britse wetenschappers zochten uit wat de effecten zouden zijn van de strengst mogelijke maatregelen tegen CO2-uitstoot die zijn voorgesteld door het Interngovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Geo-engineering

Ook berekenden ze in hoeverre het koraal is te beschermen door geo-engineering, oftwel maatregelen waarbij natuurlijke systemen worden veranderd.

Ze onderzochten een plan om grote hoeveelheden gas in de stratosfeer te injecteren. Deze tweede laag van de atmosfeer begint ongeveer 17 kilometer boven het aardoppervlak.

Als aan deze laag veel gas wordt toegevoegd, zouden minuscule gasdeeltjes een deel van het zonlicht kunnen tegenhouden, zodat de oceanen minder snel opwarmen en er minder algen afsterven en koralen verbleken.
Realiteit

Volgens de wetenschappers is gasinjectie in de atmosfeer in theorie effectiever dan C02-reductie. Ze realiseren zich echter dat zo'n extreme maatregel op korte termijn niet haalbaar is.

"In de realiteit is er nog geen directe keuze tussen conventionele maatregelen en geo-engineering", verklaart onderzoeker Peter Cox op de nieuwssite van Exeter University.

"Maar deze studie toont aan dat we of moeten accepteren dat we een groot percentage van alle koraalriffen zullen verliezen, of maatregelen moeten nemen die veel verder gaan dan het beperken van CO2-uitstoot."
Door: NU.nl/Dennis Rijnvis
[YES]Equality of Opportunity - [NO]Equality of Outcome
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vr 05 jun 2015, 00:59

[YES]Equality of Opportunity - [NO]Equality of Outcome
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ma 06 jul 2015, 07:41

Nuclear Chemist publishes groundbreaking paper: “Aluminum poisoning of humanity via Geoengineering”

Within the past couple of years alone, the concept of geoengineering has sparked a growing interest (which seems to be accelerating at a rapid rate) within the academic world. It’s also ignited a heavy interest in policy making, which is no surprise given the fact that we are talking about “geoengineering” the entire global climate in response to global climate change. That’s exactly what geoengineering is – a response to destructive human activity which we have yet to cease – and it involves injecting stratospheric particles/aerosols into the atmosphere to, again, reduce the effect of global climate change.

For example, SPICE is a United Kingdom government funded geoengineering research project that collaborates with the university of Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh, and Bristol to further examine the idea of Solar Radiation Management (SRM).

Some of the candidate particles to spray in the air proposed by SPICE (to name a few) are (source):

Sulphate/Sulphuric Acid/Sulphur Dioxide
Titania
Silicon Carbide
Calcium Carbonate
Alumina
Silica
Zinc Oxide


Groundbreaking Paper(s)

Dr. Marvin Herndon, PhD., a nuclear chemist, geochemist, and cosmochemist – most noted for deducing the composition of the inner core of Earth as being nickel silicide, not partially crystallized nickel-iron metal – has published a groundbreaking paper in the peer-reviewed journal Current Science (Indian Academy of Sciences) titled
“Aluminum poisoning of humanity and Earth’s biota by clandestine geoengineering activity: implications for India.”
The abstract reads as follows:

“In response to an urgent call through an article in Current Science for assistance to understand the geological association of high aluminum mobility with human health in the Ganga Alluvial Plain, I describe evidence of clandestine geoengineering activity that has occurred for at least 15 years, and which has escalated sharply in the last two years. The geoengineering activity via tanker-jet aircraft emplaces a non-natural, toxic substance in the Earth’s atmosphere which with rainwater liberates highly mobile aluminum. Further, I present evidence that the toxic substance is coal combustion fly ash. Clandestine dispersal of coal fly ash and the resulting liberation of highly mobile aluminum, I posit, is an underlying cause of the widespread and pronounced increase in neurological diseases and as well as the currently widespread and increasing debilitation of Earth’s biota. Recommendations are made for verifying whether the evidence presented here is applicable to the Ganga Alluvial Plain.” (source)(source)

The paper goes on to discuss and cite publications which have detected heavy metals like aluminum, barium, strontium, and more in rainwater, fly ash, and more. For example, during the period between July 2011 and November 2012, 73 rainwater samples were collected and analysed for aluminum and barium; 71 were collected from 60 different locations in Germany, 1 from France, and 1 from Austria. Aluminum was detected in 77% of the rainwater samples, there was also a very high barium concentration and a very high Strontium concentration.




http://www.transients.info/2015/07/nucl ... ishes.html
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