Onze maan is vrij normaal

Alles puur natuur nier ;-)
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baphomet
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ma 06 jun 2011, 02:02

Tja, onze maan is dus vrij normaal als we het onderstaande stukje tekst zouden moeten geloven...

Leest U even mee...???
Moons like Earth's could be more common than we thought !

About one in 10 rocky planets around stars like our Sun may host a moon proportionally as large as Earth's, researchers say.

Our Moon is disproportionately large - more than a quarter of Earth's diameter - a situation once thought to be rare.

Afbeelding

Using computer simulations of planet formation, researchers have now shown that the grand impacts that resulted in our Moon may in fact be common.The result may also help identify other planets that are hospitable to life.A report outlining the results will be published in Icarus.

Last year, researchers from the University of Zurich's Institute of Theoretical Physics in Switzerland and Ryuja Morishima of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado in the US undertook a series of simulations to look at the way planets form from gas and smaller chunks of rock called planetesimals.

Our own moon is widely thought to have formed early in the Earth's history when a Mars-sized planet slammed into the Earth, resulting in a disc of molten material encircling the Earth which in time coalesced into the Moon as we know it.

The team used the results from their initial study as the input to a further "N-body simulation" to find out the likelihood that large-scale impact events could form large satellites in the same way.Their results showed that there is about a one in 12 chance of generating a system comprising a planet more than half the Earth's mass and a moon with more than half that of our Moon (taking into account the errors in the simulation, the full range of probabilities was between one in 45 and one in four).

Sebastian Elser of the University of Zurich said the new estimates for the likelihood of Moon-sized satellites could inform the hunt for extrasolar planets.Such large moons can confuse the measurements that spot the planets, and knowing that large satellites may be common could make the measurements easier.

Also, our Moon has served to stabilise the tilt of the Earth's axis - or its obliquity - which could otherwise have varied drastically over relatively short time scales. That in turn would wreak drastic changes to the way heat from the Sun is distributed around the planet.It thus can be said that the Moon's presence made a more stable environment in which life could evolve, Mr Elser said.
"Checking for the possibility of an obliquity-stabilising moon is a good thing if you're trying to find out how many habitable worlds are out there in the galaxy," he told BBC News. "But it's surely not the only one and not the most important."
Eiichiro Kokubo is a planet formation expert who has published widely on the mechanics behind the development of both the planets in our Solar System and the Moon.

He called the result an "interesting estimate" but cautioned that there are several as-yet unknown parameters "which greatly affect lunar formation and evolution and thus the probability of hosting a large moon".
He told s that, for example, it is still impossible to put numbers to the effects of a planet's initial spin before impact, or how the disc of material is formed and evolves after it.

"I think we should take the paper as a trial calculation based on what we know about formation of terrestrial planets and moons today," he said.


Bron: http://hot-discovery.blogspot.com/2011/ ... ommon.html
1119 AD
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ma 06 jun 2011, 02:11

Gelukkig zijn we toch niet zo raar als we dachten.
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ma 06 jun 2011, 02:38

Afbeelding
Zuidpool van de Maan - "Illuminatie Kaart"...:

Je zou ‘t niet zeggen, maar wat je hiernaast op de afbeelding ziet is het zuidpoolgebied van de maan. De donkere cirkel in het midden is de bekende en 19 km grootte Shackleton krater, de preciese zuidpool ligt links op de foto ergens bij ‘negen uur’. Waarom zie de foto er zo vreemd uit? Nou simpel, het is een zogenaamde illuminatiekaart van de maan. Een ‘illumination map’ in ‘t engels, ik zou niet weten hoe ‘t anders zou moeten heten in het nederlands. Met de Wide Angle Camera (WAC) aan boord van de Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) van de NASA hebben ze de afgelopen zes maanden 1700 foto’s van dit gebied gemaakt. Al die foto’s werden stuk voor stuk omgezet in een zogenaamde binaire afbeelding, waarbij door de zon verlichte delen een pixel 1 kregen en schaduw een pixel 0. Zo’n afbeelding werd dus zwart en wit. Vervolgens werden al die foto’s ‘gestacked’, dus gestapeld tot één foto. Van iedere pixel werd ook het percentage bepaald of het vaker door de zon belicht werd of in de schaduw zat en dat leverde uiteindelijk deze illuminatiekaart op. Dergelijke kaarten – welke van de maanpolen jaarlijks worden gemaakt- kan men later gebruiken bij het plannen van mogelijke bemande reizen naar de maan, waarbij het noodzakelijk is te bepalen hoe vaak ergens de zon schijnt en wat de kans is dat op de schaduwrijke bodems van de kraters waterijs ligt.

Bron:
http://www.astroblogs.nl/2010/12/16/gel ... n-de-maan/
http://www.universetoday.com/81771/an-u ... outh-pole/
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vr 06 jun 2014, 18:27

Traces of another world found on the Moon

Researchers have found evidence of the world that crashed into the Earth billions of years ago to form the Moon.

Analysis of lunar rock brought back by Apollo astronauts shows traces of the "planet" called Theia.

The researchers claim that their discovery confirms the theory that the Moon was created by just such a cataclysmic collision.

The study has been published in the journal Science.

The accepted theory since the 1980s is that the Moon arose as a result of a collision between the Earth and Theia 4.5 billion years ago.

Theia was named after a goddess in Greek mythology who was said to be the mother of Selene, goddess of the Moon. It is thought to have disintegrated on impact with the resulting debris mingling with that from the Earth and coalescing into the Moon.

It is the simplest explanation, and fits in well with computer simulations. The main drawback with the theory is that no-one had found any evidence of Theia in lunar rock samples.

Earlier analyses had shown Moon rock to have originated entirely from the Earth whereas computer simulations had shown that the Moon ought to have been mostly derived from Theia.

Alien origin
Now a more refined analysis of Moon rock has found evidence of material thought to have an alien origin.

Afbeelding

One mystery replaced by another: Traces of Theia have been found on the Moon but its composition is very similar to that of the Earth
According to the lead researcher, Dr Daniel Herwartz, from the University of Goettingen, no-one has found definitive evidence for the collision theory, until now.

"It was getting to the stage where some people were suggesting that the collision had not taken place," he told BBC News.

"But we have now discovered small differences between the Earth and the Moon. This confirms the giant impact hypothesis."

But the difference, some say, could be explained by material absorbed by the Earth after the Moon formed.

And Prof Alex Halliday of Oxford University, is among many scientists who are surprised that the difference between the Theian material found in the Moon rock and the Earth is so small.

"What you are looking for is a much bigger difference, because that is what the rest of the Solar System looks like based on meteorite measurements," he said.

Dr Herwartz measured the difference in what is called the isotopic composition of the oxygen contained in rocks on Earth and Moon rock. This is the ratio of different forms of oxygen.

Studies of meteorites from Mars and the outer solar system show that these ratios are markedly different - rather like a fingerprint. So Prof Halliday and others are puzzled by the fact that the fingerprints of Earth and Theia seem almost identical.

Similar composition
One possibility is that Theia was formed very close to the Earth and so had a similar composition. If that was the case, it raises the possibility that the assumption that each planet in the current Solar System has a markedly different fingerprint needs to be revisited, according to Prof Halliday.

"It raises the question of how well the meteorites from Mars and the asteroid belt in the outer Solar System are representative of the inner Solar System? We do not have samples from Mercury or Venus.

"They may well be similar to the Earth. If that is the case then all the arguments over the similarities of the Earth and the Moon fall away," he told BBC News.

Afbeelding
Rock and roll: it's taken more than 40 years to discover traces of Theia in samples collected by the Apollo astronauts

Dr Mahesh Anand from the Open University described the research as "exciting" but noted that the data was from just three lunar rock samples.

"We have to be cautious about the representativeness of these rocks of the entire Moon, and so further analysis of a variety of lunar rocks is required for further confirmation," he said.

Other theories have been proposed to explain why the composition of the Earth and Moon are so similar: one is that the Earth spun much faster before impact, another is that Theia was much larger than current models suggest.

An alternative, controversial, theory proposed by Prof Rob de Meijer of Groningen University in the Netherlands is that the Earth's crust and mantle was blown into space by an accumulation of nuclear material 2,900km (1,800 miles) below the surface. It was this debris that clumped together to form the Moon.

He told BBC News that the new finding - demonstrating that there was a difference in the composition of the Earth and the Moon - did not change his view.

"The difference is too small," he said. "We don't know how the Moon was formed. What we need are manned missions to the Moon and a search for rocks deeper under the lunar surface, that have not been polluted by meteorite impacts and the solar wind."
Bron: ->>
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vr 06 jun 2014, 18:28

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vr 16 jan 2015, 18:35

Nog even wat interessants over onze maan en zo...


The Odds for Life on a Moonless Earth

Scientists have long believed that, without our moon, the tilt of the Earth would shift greatly over time, from zero degrees, where the Sun remains over the equator, to 85 degrees, where the Sun shines almost directly above one of the poles.

A planet’s stability has an effect on the development of life. A planet see-sawing back and forth on its axis as it orbits the Sun would experience wide fluctuations in climate, which then could potentially affect the evolution of complex life.

However, new simulations show that, even without a moon, the tilt of Earth’s axis – known as its obliquity – would vary only about ten degrees. The influence of other planets in the solar system could have kept a moonless Earth stable.

The stabilizing effect that our large moon has on Earth’s rotation therefore may not be as crucial for life as previously believed, according to a paper by Jason Barnes of the University of Idaho and colleagues which was presented at a recent meeting of the American Astronomical Society.

The new research also suggests that moons are not needed for other planets in the universe to be potentially habitable.

As the World Turns

Due to the gravitational pull of its star, the axis of a planet rotates like a child’s top over tens of thousands of years. Although the center of gravity remains constant, the direction of the tilt moves over time, or precesses.

Similarly, a planet’s orbital plane also precesses. When the two are in synch, the combination can cause the total obliquity of the planet to swing chaotically. But the gravity of Earth’s moon has been shown to provide a stabilizing effect. By speeding up Earth’s rotational precession and keeping it out of synch with the precession of Earth’s orbit, it minimizes fluctuations, creating a more stable system.

As terrestrial moons go, Earth’s moon is on the large size – only about a hundred times smaller than its parent planet. In comparison, Mars is over 60 million times more massive than its largest moon, Phobos.

The difference is substantial, and with good cause – while the Martian moons appear to be captured asteroids, scientists think that Earth’s moon formed when a Mars-sized body crashed into the young planet, blowing out pieces that later consolidated as the lunar satellite – a satellite which affects the planet’s tilt.

Scientists estimate that only one percent of any terrestrial planets will have a substantial moon. This means that most such planets are expected to experience massive changes in their obliquity.

The Pull of Planets

While Earth’s moon does provide some stability, the new data reveals that the pull of other planets orbiting the Sun – especially Jupiter – would keep Earth from swinging too wildly, despite its chaotic evolution.

"Because Jupiter is the most massive, it really defines the average plane of the solar system," said Barnes.

Without a moon, Barnes and his collaborators have determined that Earth’s obliquity would only vary ten to twenty degrees over a half a billion years.

That doesn’t sound like much, but the changes of one to two degrees the planet presently exhibits are thought to be partly responsible for the Ice Ages.

According to Barnes, the present shift is "a small effect, but in combination with Earth’s present climate, it causes big changes."

Still, a ten degree change is not a huge problem when it comes to life. "(It) would have effects, but not preclude the development of large scale, intelligent life."

Furthermore, if Jupiter were closer, Barnes explains, the Earth’s orbit would precess faster, and the moon would actually make the planet fluctuate more wildly, rather than less.

"A moon can be stabilizing or destabilizing, depending on what’s going on in the rest of the system," he said.

The Benefit of a Back Spin

The team also determined that planets with retrograde, or backward motion should have smaller variations than those that spin in the same direction as their parent star, a large moon notwithstanding.

"We think the initial rotation direction should be random," Barnes said. "If it is, half the planets out there would not have problems with obliquity variations."

What determines which way a planet spins? He suspects that "whatever smacks the planet last establishes its rotation rate."

A 50/50 shot at retrograde precession, combined with the likelihood of other planets in the system keeping the planet from tipping on its side, means more terrestrial planets could be potentially habitable. Barnes ventured an estimate that at least 75 percent of the rocky planets in the habitable zone may be stable enough for life to evolve, though he notes that additional studies are needed to confirm or disprove that.

In comparison, the previous idea that a large moon was necessary for a constant tilt meant that only about 1 percent of terrestrial planets would have a steady climate.

"A large moon can stabilize (a planet)," Barnes said, "but in most cases, it’s not needed."


Bron: -> http://www.astrobio.net/news-exclusive/ ... ess-earth/
Theories Attempting to Explain Frozen Mammoths

Ten theories have been proposed to explain the frozen mammoth puzzle. Each will be described below as an advocate would.
Fruitful theories answer not only the obvious, initial questions but also solve perplexing and seemingly unrelated problems. As we unravel the mystery of the frozen mammoths, we may answer broader questions and even uncover a sequence of dramatic, global events.
Robust theories also provide details that result in surprising and testable predictions. Keep this in mind as we examine all ten explanations. With each, ask yourself, “What predictions can this theory make?” If predictions are missing, the theory is probably weak.118 If theories could not be published unless they included many details and specific predictions, we would be mercifully spared many distractions and false ideas.
Hydroplate Theory. [For a more detailed description of the hydroplate theory, read pages 111–147.] On that terrible day, the rupture of the earth’s crust passed between what is now Siberia and Alaska in minutes. Jetting water from the fountains of the great deep first fell as rain. During the next few hours, some of the accelerating and expanding subterranean water that went above the atmosphere (where the effective temperature is several hundred degrees below zero Fahrenheit) froze and fell as hail.119 Some animals were suddenly buried, suffocated, frozen, and compressed by tons of cold, muddy ice crystals from the gigantic “hail storm.” Dirt in this ice prevented it from floating as the flood waters submerged these regions after days and weeks. Blankets of this muddy ice, hundreds of feet thick, insulated and preserved many animals during the flood phase. As the topmost layers of ice melted, the dirt in that ice remained and settled—blanketing and further insulating the deeper ice and buried animals.
Months later, after mountains were suddenly pushed up, the earth’s balance shifted, the earth slowly “rolled” 34°–57°, so Siberia and Alaska moved from temperate latitudes (similar to north-central United States today) to their present positions. [For details, see Endnote 77 on page 143.] As the flood waters drained off the continents, whatever icy graves existed in warmer climates melted, and buried animals decayed. However, many animals, buried in what are now permafrost regions, were preserved.
These conclusions can be reached quite simply. The evidence showing compression and suffocation of the frozen mammoths implies rapid burial. Rapid burial and sudden freezing suggest a supercold “ice dump.”
compression + suffocation = rapid burial

rapid burial + sudden freezing = an “ice dump”

Lake Drowning Theory.121 No catastrophe occurred. The well-preserved mammoths, with food in their stomachs and between their teeth, died suddenly, probably from asphyxiation resulting from drowning in a partially frozen lake, river, or bog. Such burials can preserve animal—and even human—tissue for thousands of years.
Crevasse Theory. Some mammoths fell into ice crevasses or deep snowdrifts. This protected them from predators, while ice preserved them for thousands of years.122
Mud Burial Theory. In Siberian summers, the top foot or so of tundra thaws, so larger animals, even men, can easily become stuck—standing upright. Herds of mammoths, rhinoceroses, and buffalo made summer migrations to northern Siberia and Alaska. Some became stuck in this mud; others were overwhelmed and suffocated in mudslides. Still others died for various reasons and were then buried in slow mudflows during several summer thaws. Sudden cold spells—sometimes followed by long, cold winters—froze and preserved many mammoths.123
River Transport Theory. Mammoths and other animals lived farther south in the temperate zone of Asia where food was abundant. Flooding rivers floated their remains from Central Siberia on the north flowing rivers.124
Extinction-by-Man Theory.Man exterminated mammoths, just as man almost exterminated the buffalo. Man, in hunting mammoths, pursued and pushed them north into Siberia and Alaska. There, they died from harsh weather, lack of food, or the direct killing by man.125
Bering Barrier Theory. As ice accumulated on continents during the last Ice Age, sea level was lowered by 300 feet and the Bering Strait was closed. This newly created land bridge allowed people and animals, including mammoths, to migrate between Siberia and Alaska and onto Arctic islands. Because the warmer Pacific waters could no longer mix through the Bering Strait with the cold Arctic Ocean, the Pacific waters became even warmer and the Arctic waters even colder. The resulting heavy evaporation from the Pacific caused extreme snow falls on higher, colder land masses north of the Bering barrier. Mammoths and others were buried in severe snow storms early one fall. As the Ice Age ended, heavy rains washed soil down on top of compacted snow deposits, forming rock ice. Some frozen mammoths and rock ice are still preserved. Since then, glacial melting raised sea levels and reestablished the Bering Strait.128
Mild Ice Age Theory.129 During snow and dust storms about 700 years after the global flood, some mammoths were frozen, buried, suffocated, and preserved—a few standing up. Here is how it happened.
The flood waters were warm, if not hot, because they came from 3,000–10,000 feet below the earth’s crust where temperatures are 30–100°F hotter. Warm, postflood oceans produced both heavy evaporation and snow fall. As snow depths increased, the Ice Age began;130 it lasted about 700 years—until the oceans cooled sufficiently. Thick ice sheets built up in continental interiors and lowered sea levels somewhat. During those 700 years, mammoths migrated from the mountains of Ararat to northern Siberia and from there to Alaska during a brief exposure of a land bridge across the Bering Strait. With warm winds off the warm Arctic Ocean producing a tolerable climate for the ice age mammoths, their numbers grew to about 10 million. Other temperate animals were also able to live at those high latitudes. As the oceans cooled, fierce storms developed. Blowing dust, called loess, suffocated and buried most mammoths, some standing up. Other storms converted the dust to permafrost.
Shifting Crust Theory. Before the last Ice Age, the Hudson Bay was at the North Pole. Siberia and Alaska were farther south and supported abundant vegetation and large herds of mammoths. As vast amounts of ice accumulated at what was then the North Pole, the crust on the spinning earth became unbalanced and slid, moving Siberia northward. Because the earth is slightly flattened at the poles and bulges at the equator, the shifting crust produced many ruptures. Volcanic gas was thrown above the atmosphere where it cooled and descended as a supercold “blob.” Airborne volcanic dust lowered temperatures on earth and caused phenomenal snow storms. Mammoths and other animals living in Siberia and Alaska were suddenly frozen and buried in extremely cold snow. Some are still preserved.131
Meteorite Theory. At the end of the last Ice Age, a large iron meteorite hit earth’s atmosphere. The resulting heat temporarily melted the top layers of the frozen tundra, causing mammoths to sink into muck. Poor visibility caused others “to blunder to their deaths in icy bogs.”132

Via:-> http://www.creationscience.com/onlinebo ... oths6.html
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vr 16 jan 2015, 18:36

#podcast60
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di 10 feb 2015, 02:19

De maan zoals u hem nog nooit heeft gezien

Gepubliceerd: 09 februari 2015 16:43
Laatste update: 09 februari 2015 16:49

De NASA heeft beelden vrijgegeven waarop de maan te zien is, vanuit een hoek die niet vanaf Aarde te zien is.
De ruimteorganisatie heeft er vijf jaar over gedaan om de andere kant van de maan in kaart te brengen. Op de 'achterkant' van de maan zit de op een-na-grootste inslagkrater in het zonnestelsel, de zogenoemde Zuidpool-Aitken-bekken.
bron en video:->> http://www.nu.nl/wetenschap/3989284/maa ... ezien.html
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vr 06 okt 2017, 16:02

'Maan had dampkring net als aarde'
06 oktober 2017 14:35
https://www.nu.nl/wetenschap/4952930/ma ... aarde.html


De maan heeft lang geleden een dampkring gehad, net als de aarde. Die atmosfeer ontstond meer dan 3 miljard jaar geleden en bestond ongeveer 70 miljoen jaar, maar vervloog uiteindelijk. De gassen verdwenen de ruimte in.

Wetenschappers van de Amerikaanse ruimtevaartorganisatie NASA trekken die conclusie na onderzoek op maanrotsen. Die zijn door maanwandelaars meegenomen naar de aarde. De rotsen zijn gemaakt van basalt en gevormd door oude vulkanen op de maan.

Die vulkanen zijn nu gedoofd, maar barstten veel uit toen de maan nog jong was. Lava stroomde over het oppervlak van de maan en de vulkanen vulden de atmosfeer met onder meer koolstofmonoxide, zwavel en water. Sporen daarvan zijn terug te vinden in de maanrotsen.

De atmosfeer was 3,5 miljard jaar geleden op zijn dikst. Hij was toen dichter dan de dampkring van Mars nu, maar het is ongeveer 100 keer dunner dan de lucht die wij inademen.

Een deel van de waterdamp is mogelijk terechtgekomen bij de noordpool en de zuidpool van de maan. Daar is het nu misschien nog steeds te vinden, als ijs en water onder het oppervlak.
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do 20 sep 2018, 08:46

Een aantal prachtige foto's van de maan, gemaakt door een maatje van me:

Afbeelding

Afbeelding

Afbeelding
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do 20 sep 2018, 09:12



Is de ruimte water of ???


Proselenes ;)
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za 26 jan 2019, 14:09

"This may be Earth's oldest rock—and it was collected on the moon"

Toch best wel heel knap, die wetenschap, om de oudste steen ( een gedeelte, heel klein dan ) van de aarde op de maan te vinden, we zijn daar tenslotte niet elke dag aanwezig :P

PUBLISHED January 25, 2019
Scientists may have just found the oldest intact Earth rock—on the moon. A study published Thursday in Earth and Planetary Science Letters makes the case that one of the rocks collected by Apollo 14 astronauts in 1971 contains a fragment of Earth's ancient crust, dating back more than 4.011 billion years.

It's possible that the fragment formed in a weirdly water-rich pocket of magma deep within the ancient moon. But the study authors think it's likelier that the rock formed within our planet's crust and got jettisoned to the moon by one of the many meteor impacts that bombarded early Earth.

bron en meer: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/scie ... 4-zircons/
via:

26 januari 2019 01:52
Astronauten die in 1971 met de Apollo 14 naar de maan gingen hebben daar een steen gevonden die van aarde afkomstig is. De steen is vier miljard jaar oud en mogelijk de oudste steen van onze planeet die ooit gevonden is.

Dat blijkt uit een publicatie in het wetenschappelijke tijdschrift Earth and Planetary Science Letters. De steen bestaat uit kwarts, zirkonium en veldspaat.

De manier waarop de steen gevormd is, maakt het volgens de onderzoekers duidelijk dat de oorsprong ervan op de aarde ligt. De steen van 2 gram is meer dan 19 kilometer onder de grond gevormd in een oxiderende omgeving. Zo'n omgeving is niet aanwezig op de maan, maar wel op aarde.

meer: https://www.nu.nl/wetenschap/5706456/vi ... onden.html
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do 18 apr 2019, 09:53

[YES]Equality of Opportunity - [NO]Equality of Outcome
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